Treatment of diplegia can involve physical therapy (e.g., strength training), electrical stimulation of muscles, use of assistive devices (e.g., walkers, wheelchairs, braces), medication, and surgery.  A common medication used for treatment of diplegia is botox (Botulinum toxin) because it helps to decrease muscle contractions. Surgical approaches commonly involve lengthening of the hamstrings, which improves flexion and motion. Hamstrings are a group of muscles at the back of the thigh that bend the knee and swing the leg backwards from the thigh. If the cause of diplegia is reversible (e.g, infection) then treatment of the cause (e.g., with antibiotic medication) may reverse the condition.

Diplegia is also known as double hemiplegia. Diplegia comes from the Greek word, "di" meaning "two," and the word "plege," meaning "stroke." Put the two words together and you have "two stroke," referring to the two sides of the body affected by the paralysis. Because strokes sometimes lead to loss of movement and/or sensation in parts of the body, the word "plegia" is used to refer to such conditions. Other types of "plegias" include quadriplegia, hemiplegia, and paraplegia
Diplegia is paralysis (loss of muscle function) of the same or similar body parts on both sides of the. Examples of diplegia would be when both hands are paralyzed or when two similar parts of the face on both sides of the body are paralyzed. The face, arms, or legs are commonly affected in diplegia.

In children, a common cause of diplegia is cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy is a type of brain damage that occurs during pregnancy, during birth, during infancy, or during early childhood that causes the child to have difficulties with movement and posture. Most people with cerebral palsy have diplegia in the legs but the arms are sometimes affected as well. Other types of brain injury (such as strokes) can result in diplegia. A stroke is a burst artery (a type of blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart) or a blockage of an artery in the brain. Infectious diseases, toxic exposures, and metabolism disturbances affecting the brain or spinal cord can also cause diplegia. Metabolism is the chemical actions in cells that release energy from nutrients or use energy to create other substances.

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